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Conservation and Society
An interdisciplinary journal exploring linkages between society, environment and development
Conservation and Society
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Editorial Policy | Publication CategoriesApplicable contribtuion (APC) |  Author Information | Submission Guidelines | Manuscirpt Structure | Review Process | Styling and Formatting | Ahead of Print | Correspondence |  Download Instructions


 Editorial Policy  Top
Conservation & Society (C&S) is a leading international Open Access journal founded in and published from the Global South. It is supported by the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Bengaluru, India.
Editors are drawn from an interdisciplinary community of natural and social scientists involved in conservation research and practice. They retain full, independent control of editorial policy, operations, and management of the Journal.
The Journal is published electronically four times a year. The journal’s entire archive is accessible on the C&S website and on JSTOR.
The Journal accepts original articles addressing conservation issues from around the world. All submissions are subject to peer review and editing before being considered for publication.
The Journal employs a double-blind peer-review policy. Author and reviewer identities are mutually concealed throughout the review process.
The Journal endorses the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity and the Montreal Statement on Research Integrity in Cross-Boundary Research Collaborations. It expects authors to present research that has been carried out in a responsible manner, i.e., is collaborative, reciprocal, and which ensures the respect and safety of participants.
All journal content is covered by the Creative Commons Attribution license. Authors retain copyright of their articles published with the Journal. Authors may reproduce the published article in English or any other language by informing the Conservation & Society Managing Editor and ensuring that the original publication in the journal is attributed as specified in the Creative Commons Attribution license.
The Journal is a signatory to the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA)

Ethical Principles
Conservation & Society promotes accessibility, diversity, equity, and inclusivity in all aspects of publication. Editorial decisions are based on scholarly merit of the manuscript and not affected by country origins, nationality, ethnicity, political beliefs, race, or religion of the authors. C&S creates and inclusionary environment for all those wanting to engage with the journal and regularly assess its policies for inclusivity and publication merit.

The Journal publishes the following types of submissions:
      i.        Research articles
     ii.        Review essays 
    iii.        Colloquy
    iv.        Special section
     v.        Letters to the Editor
    vi.        Book reviews
Research Articles
Manuscripts which advance understanding of issues at the intersection of conservation and society by a) presenting original research based on new data not published elsewhere, b) new analysis of existing datasets, c) new or significant improvements to existing conservation practices.
Research articles may not exceed 9000 words in length including references and endnotes, accompanied by abstracts of no more than 200 words, and 5-6 keywords. A maximum of two figures or tables is allowed. Inclusion of additional figures or tables will require a reduction in word count as specified in the submission instructions.
Manuscripts that exceed these word limits will be returned to the author without review, but with encouragement to meet the requirements.
Review Essays
Manuscripts that present original analysis of global developments and theoretical trends, and which offer fresh perspectives and insights into critical issues relevant to the interdisciplinary field of conservation and society.
Review essays may not exceed 9000 words in length including references and endnotes, accompanied by abstracts of no more than 200 words, and 5-6 keywords. A maximum of two figures or tables is allowed. Inclusion of additional figures or tables will require a reduction in word count as specified in the submission instructions.
Manuscripts that exceed these word limits will be returned to the author without review, but with encouragement to meet the requirements.
Manuscripts that make significant theoretical or methodological interventions to ongoing debates or critical issues in interdisciplinary conservation research and practice. These will be published under the category of Colloquy accompanied by shorter commentaries on the key article from leading scholars in the field. Colloquy articles and accompanying commentaries will be subject to normal standards of peer review.
Authors may request the Editors to consider their manuscript as a key article for Colloquy and suggest names of possible scholars that may be invited to comment on the piece.
The key article may not exceed 9000 words in length including references and endnotes, accompanied by abstracts of no more than 200 words, and 5-6 keywords. A maximum of two figures or tables is allowed. Inclusion of additional figures or tables will require a reduction in word count as specified in the submission instructions.
Each commentary on the key article may be no more than 3000 words in length, including references.
Manuscripts and commentaries that exceed these word limits will be returned to the authors without review, but with encouragement to meet the requirements.
Special Sections
The Journal considers proposals for special sections, which comprise a collection of research articles on themes specific to conservation and society. Contributors may send proposals to [email protected]. The proposal should contain a background and justification for a special section on the topic, outlining the contents with titles and abstracts for each contribution, and a timeline for the submission The manuscripts of special sections will be subject to normal standards of peer review. If the proposal is accepted, the Editors will invite the proposer/s to serve as Guest Editor/s for the special section. The Guest Editors will assist the Journal Editors in managing the review process and write an Introductory Essay for the special section.
A Special Section may contain a maximum of 12 articles, including the Introductory Essay by the Guest Editors. Each article may not exceed 9000 words in length including references and endnotes, accompanied by abstracts of no more than 200 words, and 5-6 keywords. A maximum of two figures or tables is allowed. Inclusion of additional figures or tables will require a reduction in word count as specified in the submission instructions.
Manuscripts that exceed these word limits will be returned to the author without review, but with encouragement to meet the requirements.
Letters to the Editor
Short communications by readers which offer scholarly and objective comments or critiques of articles published in the Journal. These may be peer-reviewed at the discretion of the Editor prior to publication.
Letters to the Editor may not exceed 900 words, including references.
Book and Film Reviews
Short assessments that cover the key propositions and substantive material presented in recently published books on conservation-related topics. The reviews range between 1000 and 1500 words in length and can include assessments of more than one book, if these pertain to the same topic.
Reviews of films on conservation-related topics may also be published under this category.
Book and film reviews are usually solicited by the editors. Suggestions for book or film reviews may be submitted to the Journal’s Book Review editors for consideration.

Effective from 1st December 2020, C&S will operate under a ‘Gold’ Open Access Policy.The Journal will charge a processing contribution for articles that have been accepted for publication after undergoing the normal peer review process.
Lead authors from institutions in countries classified by the World Bank as upper middle income or high income economies will pay an Article Processing Contribution (APC) of US$ 600/ EU€ 540 to help the Journal offset costs of peer review management, production, online hosting and archiving.
Manuscripts received on or after 1st December 2020 will be subject to the C&S Gold Open Access Policy. 
Authors will not be required to make the contribution at the time of submitting their manuscripts to the Journal. The APC will be collected after the full review process is completed and the manuscript has been accepted by the editors for publication. Requests to waive the APC (see ‘Waivers’ below) must be received at the time of submission; waivers will not be granted at acceptance.
With sufficient support from its authors and their institutions, C&S aims to become financially independent and restore its fully free ‘Platinum’ Open Access status within the next 6 years.
The Journal will waive the APC for:
1)    Submissions where the lead and corresponding authors have their primary base at institutions in countries classified by the World Bank as low income and lower-middle income economies.
2)    Authors currently based at institutions that annually contribute to the C&S Open Access Support Fund. Authors from upper-middle and high-income economy countries need not pay the APC if their institutions contribute annually to the C&S Open Access Support Fund. The annual institutional contribution amount is US$ 1000. Authors will need to check the C&S website to confirm whether or not their institution maintains an active annual contribution. **
** Authors based in upper-middle and high-income economy countries are strongly encouraged to request their university/institutional libraries to maintain an annual contribution to the journal. The annual contribution offers excellent value for institutions/university libraries. It promotes and strengthens Open Access publishing, is less than the cost of two APCs, and enables scholars from contributing institutions to publish without individually contributing the APC. For further information, contact the Managing Editor at [email protected]
On request, waivers will be considered by editors on a case-by-case basis for:
1)    Any currently enrolled university student based in upper-middle or high-income economy countries, who is the sole author of the manuscript. Evidence of current enrolment and attested declaration of lack of access to publication grants or subventions from their university should be provided at the time of manuscript submission.
2)    Sole authors based in upper-middle income and high-income economy countries who are in precarious academic positions, i.e., under limited contracts for sessional teaching, with no access to research funding, publication grants, or subventions from their employers. Authors should provide an attested declaration to this effect while submitting their manuscript.
Quick Reference Guide for Manuscript Specifications
Publication Category
Abstract length in number of words
Number of Keywords
Manuscript Length in number of words, includes references, endnotes
Number of tables and figures
APC contrib
Research Article
Review Essay
Key Article
Not applicable
Colloquy: Commentary on Key Article
Not applicable
Research/Review Article in Special Section
Letters to the Editor
Not applicable
Book Review
Not applicable
Criteria for Authorship
To be named as author of a manuscript, individuals should meet the following four conditions:
a)    They should have substantially contributed to: i) the conception or design of the research; ii) the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data compiled for the research, and
b)    Drafted the manuscript and worked on subsequent revisions following peer review input, and
c)    Approved the final version of the manuscript prior to publication, and
d)    Agreed to be accountable for the accuracy and integrity of the research presented in the manuscript, and responsible for answering any related questions that may arise after publication.
Author responsibilities
All contributing authors are expected to have reviewed, discussed, and agreed to their individual contributions prior to manuscript submission. This information should be provided while submitting the manuscript.
One of the authors must be named as the corresponding author. The corresponding author should:
a)    be primarily responsible for communicating with the Journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process
b)    ensure that all the Journal’s administrative requirements, such as providing details of authorship, research ethics approval, and conflict of interest statements, are completed
c)    respond to editorial queries through the peer review process
d)    be responsible for providing any additional information or data requested by the journal prior to final publication of the manuscript.
All authors will be asked to reconfirm their authorship details (name, affiliation, email address) before the manuscript is published. All must comply with this request for publication to proceed.
Changes in authorship
C&S follows the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines for changes in authorship.
Changes in authorship include:
a)    Adding name(s)
b)    Deleting name(s)
c)    Rearranging the order of author names
Changes which occur after manuscript submission and peer review, but before publication, require agreement from all authors. The corresponding author should submit the request to the Managing Editor explaining:
a)    the reason for the change, and
b)    provide written confirmation from all authors (by email or a jointly signed letter), including those who have been removed or added, that they agree with the proposed change.
Changes to authorship requested after the manuscript has been published will appear as a correction alongside the already published article.
Submission Procedure
All manuscripts and supporting material must be submitted electronically at https://review.jow.medknow.com/cs. This is an online manuscript processing system which allows submission of articles with tracking of its progress till proof stage.
New authors are required to register at https://review.jow.medknow.com/cs (as Author), before proceeding with the submission process. Returning authors are required to login (as Author). Authors will be guided through the various steps involved during submission.
In case of any doubts/difficulties during the submission process, authors should write to [email protected] and cc to [email protected]
Manuscripts and Supplementary Information must be uploaded as Microsoft Word documents, in DOC or DOCX format. Files submitted in other formats will not be processed and returned to the authors to upload in the required format.
Before submission, authors should ensure that the manuscript submitted contains no comments, annotations, field codes, or hidden text, and that all “tracked changes” or other revisions in the manuscript have been accepted as final.
Authors may include a cover letter to the editor indicating the manuscript category, along with suggestions for up to five potential reviewers for their manuscript.
Manuscripts should be written in simple and clear English language. Recognising the international and interdisciplinary scope of C&S, authors should ensure that regional idioms, specialist terminologies, and acronyms are properly contextualised and explained in the text.
Organising the manuscript
Manuscripts should be organised in the following order: Front Matter, Main Text, and Supplementary Information.
Title and subtitle: A maximum of 12 words in length
Running head: A shorter version of the title for the header
Author(s):  Full name(s) and affiliation(s) of author(s)
Author Contributions Statement: All submissions with more than one author must include an Author Contributions statement in the manuscript. If all authors contributed equally, this should be stated, e.g., “All authors contributed equally to design, data collection, analysis and drafting of the manuscript.”
If authors have made varied contributions to the manuscript, the Journal suggests one of the following formats (‘*’ indicates initials of author(s)):
Format 1: Narrative
* conceived and designed the study/research/work; * collected the data (elaborate if necessary); * analysed the data; * led the drafting of the manuscript. All authors contributed critical, intellectual content to the drafts and gave final approval of the version to be published.
Format 2: Point form
Conception or design of the work: * Data collection: * Data analysis: * Drafting of manuscript: * Critical revision of manuscript: * Final approval of the version to be published: *
Acknowledgements: Persons who provided help during the research and manuscript preparation should be acknowledged.
The Acknowledgements statement should:
a)    Contain the full name of all individuals who are being thanked
b)    Include a short description of the nature of assistance received from named individuals and groups
Declaration of competing/conflicting interests: Authors must declare all competing interests (financial or non-financial) that might raise the question of bias in the work to be published, and/or interfere with the objectivity of the research, peer review, editorial decision-making or publication of the manuscript. If none exists, this must be stated, e.g., “The authors declare no competing interests in the conduct of this research.”
Financial Disclosures: Each author must individually declare all sources of funding they received for the research presented in the manuscript. This information includes:
a)    names of funding agencies and specific grant numbers
b)    Initials of authors who received the grants
If the research received no specific grant from any funding agency, this must be stated, e.g., “This research was not funded by any agency”.
Research Ethics Approval: Research involving human participants, protected species and designated conservation areas must provide details of ethics approval by their institutional research boards or equivalent granting authorities. This includes the institutional authority/ies and the specific number of the Ethics Approval document and any relevant permits.
In situations where authors are unable to provide the Ethics Approval information, they should declare this (e.g., if their institution does not have a formal Ethics Review board/process). In such cases, the authors should provide a full explanation of how they addressed the ethics of responsible data collection in the methodology section of their manuscript. For an explanation of responsible research, see the University of Pretoria’s Code of Ethics for Research.
Data Availability: Authors should provide a statement regarding the availability of data presented in the manuscript and its location. They may choose to provide relevant datasets in a separate Supplementary Information file which will be hosted on the C&S server. If the data is not available for public access, they should state this along with the reason (e.g., “the data is not accessible due to privacy restrictions”).
Preprint Archiving: Authors should provide references and links to any pre-review or pre-print versions of their manuscript which have been uploaded on sites such as Biorxiv or SocArxiv. If the manuscript is accepted by C&S for publication, these references and links will be included in the final published version. Once their article is published in C&S, authors will be required to provide a link to the article from the archived versions.
The Front Matter should be saved and submitted as a separate file to ensure double blind review.
The main text should not have any information that discloses the identity of the authors. There should be no comments, annotations, field codes, hidden text, or track changes that may reveal the identity of the authors. The main text should comprise:
Manuscript title and subtitle: As provided in the Front Matter
Abstract: 200-word summary of the manuscript. In addition to the abstract written in English, authors have the option of submitting abstracts in the language of the country in which their fieldwork was based.
Keywords: 5 or 6 keywords
Body of Text: Should not exceed 9000 words in total, including all endnotes and references, and a maximum of two (2) illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs, line drawings, graphs, tables) with captions. The two illustrations should be 75mm x 100 mm in size and meet the resolution and format specifications.
Additional illustrations may be included in the manuscript only if the equivalent number of words are reduced from the main text.  See illustration specifications.
Illustration specifications
Any illustration in the form of photographs, maps, line drawings, graphs, charts, and tables should be placed within the body of the manuscript, and also submitted separately as individual files.
Type of Illustration
Size in millimetres (mm)
Equivalent number of words
300 dpi
75 x 100
Maps/line drawings
600 dpi
75 x 100
300 dpi
75 x 100
JPEG, and as separate Excel (XLS) file
Should only contain text, no internal shading of cells
75 x100
Microsoft Word (DOC, DOCX) or Excel (XLS)
Text only, no internal shading of box
75 x 100
Larger illustrations
150 x 100
150 x 200
To avoid exceeding the manuscript word limit, authors may consider placing large tables in a separate Supplementary Information file.
Supplementary Information is not subject to the manuscript word limit. All material presented as Supplementary Information, e.g., large tables, datasets, plant surveys and lists, experimental procedures or techniques, should be compiled within a single file with the Manuscript title and author details. Each item should be numbered using Arabic numerals and carry the appropriate title, caption, and explanation. The materials in the Supplementary Information should not appear in the main manuscript. All material presented in this section should correspond with the data availability statement and conform with copyright protocols. Supplementary information data should be submitted in DOC, DOCX, XLS, XLSX formats.
When published, the Supplementary Information file will be accessible via a link provided in the article.
As an interdisciplinary journal, Conservation & Society accepts manuscripts that are structured according to Natural Sciences, Humanities, and Social Sciences conventions.
In general, the manuscript structure, regardless of type (i.e., research article, review article, colloquy key article) should follow this order:
      i.        Provide the empirical or theoretical context for the main question/hypothesis/argument of the manuscript
     ii.        Clearly state the question/hypothesis/argument
    iii.        Situate the question/hypothesis/argument within the current literature, namely, theoretical debates and empirical research on the specific topic and in relation to conservation-society issues
    iv.        Describe materials and methods for data collection and analysis
     v.        Report the results of analysis
    vi.        Discuss the findings and implications for the question/hypothesis/argument of the paper
   vii.        Conclude by highlighting the significant contribution of the manuscript to the current debates and research on the specific topic and more broadly to conservation-society issues.
Book reviews should provide an engaging overview of the contents and key insights offered by the authors. It should outline the book’s overarching argument or hypothesis, the narrative structure, the methods of collecting evidence and data analysis. It should discuss the originality of the narrative, reflect on the book’s ability to engage with contemporary debates on conservation, and its relevance for addressing issues related to conservation research and practice.
The following information should appear at the beginning of the book review:
Author(s)/Editor(s), Book title, Place of publication, Publisher, Year of publication, Number of pages, Book type, ISBN (hardcopy and e-book versions), Price(s).
Reviews of films may focus in greater detail on the narrative structure, the intersecting themes, the audio-visual methods and techniques of building the narrative through characters, elements, and locations; and the ability of the film to engage a wide audience with critical issues related to conservation and society.
The following information should appear at the beginning of the film review:
Film Director, Film title, Film type (documentary feature, television/cable, or OTT platform series), Film Producer, Year of release, Length in minutes, Access Price.
They are accepted or rejected on the basis of the quality and fit for the Journal.
Authors are required to provide the details of five potential reviewers (name, institutional affiliation and email address). They may also provide reasons for why they do not want particular individuals to review their manuscript. Authors may also suggest a supervising editor for their manuscript from the members of the Editorial Board.
Every manuscript, including all figures, tables, appendices and supplementary material, undergoes a pre-review by the Managing editor to assess suitability for the journal.. A manuscript may be rejected at the pre-review stage if the Managing editor determines that the subject matter lies outside the scope of the journal.
Manuscripts that pass pre-review are assigned to an Editor who reviews the manuscript for content  and identifies an associate editor to handle the submission. Together they decide to either reject the manuscript or to send it out for review. They will identify reviewers and oversee the review process with the assistance of the Managing Editor. The reviewers are provided the de-identified manuscript and evaluation forms. The review process usually takes 4 to 8 weeks. Authors are notified if the review process is delayed beyond 8 weeks.
Once the manuscript reviews are received, the Editor communicates the reviews and provides an overall assessment and recommendation for the manuscript. The recommended actions are: Accept, Accept with minor revisions, Major revision and reassessment, and Reject.
Appeal process
Authors may submit a written appeal to the Editor for reconsideration of the manuscript decision. The appeal should state the assigned manuscript number and the reasons for their appeal, including their responses to the reviewers’ and/or editors’ comments.
On receiving the appeal, the Editor will review the decision while taking into consideration the authors’ responses. The Editor may seek advice from the Editor Collective to arrive at a final decision.
The Journal allows only one appeal per manuscript. Decisions on appeals will be final. In all cases the Managing Editor will communicate the outcome of the appeal to the corresponding author(s) via email.
C&S takes all allegations of pre and post-publication misconduct seriously including allegations from whistleblowers. Allegations are investigated on the basis of evidence provided. The Editorial Collective assesses the intent of the allegation, investigates the evidence and arrives at a decision based on consensus.
Post-publication corrections
As per the publisher’s guidelines, no alterations can be made to an article once it has been published online. In specific instances, post-publication corrections are allowed in the case of minor errors or omissions such as missing or unclear captions, or information on funding sources and competing interests of authors. A separate correction notice will be published in the following issue with a link to the original published article. 
C&S follows COPE guidelines for article retractions that have clear evidence of research and /or publication misconduct. Authors or institutions can submit a request to the Editors along with reasons and evidence that meets the criteria for retraction. Evidence may include honest errors, unreliable findings, data fabrication, citation manipulation, previously published findings, or plagiarism. The decision to issue a retraction will be based on a thorough investigation and assessment of evidence by the Editorial Collective. 
A retraction notice will be published in the following issue. Once an article has been retracted, the direct link to the originally published article will appear with a “Retracted” watermark on the first page.
Policies on plagiarism
Plagiarism is the presentation of someone else’s work or ideas as one’s own. Any portion of text, verbatim or not, that draws from prior work should be explicitly acknowledged and cited with page numbers. The use of text, verbatim or near-verbatim, of one's own copyrighted work without citing the original source is considered as self-plagiarism. This includes all published or unpublished work. C&S follows the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines on plagiarism and retraction. COPE flowcharts will be used where applicable.
Plagiarism before publication 
If a case of plagiarism is detected by an Editor, Associate Editor, or Reviewer during the peer-review process, after revision, or before acceptance, the author will be asked to include appropriate citations, use direct quotations, or rewrite the relevant sections. 

Plagiarism after publication
Any cases of plagiarism discovered after publication will be investigated and brought to the notice of the corresponding author. In minor cases, such as missing citations or unattributed direct quotations, a correction will be published in the following issue. In major cases, the editors will recommend a formal notice of retraction to be published in the following issue. They may advise the authors to resubmit the manuscript for publication as a new article after the necessary changes are made and approved by the Editors. 


Language and Spelling
The Journal follows British English language and spelling conventions, e.g., ‘organisation’ instead of ‘organization’; ‘organise’ instead of ‘organize’; ‘programme’ not ‘program’; ‘labour’ not ‘labor’.
All section headings and sub-headings must be numbered e.g., 1, 2; 2.1; 2.3.1
Limit the section headings to 3 levels.
Main section headings: All caps and bold. e.g., 1. INTRODUCTION
Sub-heading: Title Case, bold. e.g., 3.2 Trees in Grassland
Level 3 sub-heading: Sentence case, italics, e.g., 3.2.1 Grassland dynamics
Single quotation marks (‘scare’ quotes) should be used for drawing attention to a concept or highlighting a contested term.

Double quotation marks (“..”) should be used for directly quoted words from interviews or a quotation directly extracted from a published text. Phrasing and spelling should be reproduced exactly as in the source.
All direct quotations of 45 words or more should be set apart from the text and indented.
Direct quotations from published texts are subject to ‘fair dealing’ copyright limits. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce direct quotations that exceeds these limits.
Hyphenation of words must be consistent. e.g., do not alternate between ‘macro-economic’ and ‘macroeconomic’.
Hyphens can be used to distinguish between nouns and attributive adjectives. e.g., ‘the middle class’ but ‘middle-class ethics’
Adjectives ending in ‘ly’ may be hyphenated. e.g., heavenly-sounding music
Adverbs ending with ‘ly’ should not be hyphenated. e.g., happily married couple not happily-married couple.
A pair of em dashes is used to emphasise a particular portion of the sentence.
En dashes are used to represent numerical ranges and compound modifiers.
Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Contractions
Acronyms should be spelled in full the first time they occur in the body of the text, e.g., Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). No full stops / periods should be used between letters. e.g., IPCC, IPBES, IUCN, WWF

For abbreviations (words shortened by omitting the end), use full stop / period. e.g., p., vol., ed., eds.

For contractions (words shortened by omitting the middle), do not use full stop / period. e.g., Mr and Dr
Ensure consistency in abbreviations, acronyms, and contractions.
Use the International System of Units (SI) for measurements: millimetres, kilometres, kilograms, litres, metric tonnes, Celsius.
For exact measurements, quantities, and percentages, use figures (not words). e.g., 3%, 5 ml, 3 km, 5 years. Symbols such as %, °C, and ° should be placed close to the number. e.g., 3%, 50°C, 55°E
In general descriptions, numbers below 10 should be spelt out in words, the rest in figures. Use thousands, million, billion, trillion (not crores and lakhs).
Calendar date order: ‘22 December 2019’
Decade: ‘1990s’ (not 1990’s, ‘90s or ‘90’s)

Century: ‘nineteenth century’ (not ‘19th century’)
Era: BCE (not BC) and CE (not AD)
Place names
Spellings of place names should correspond with contemporary usage. If the place name spelling has been recently altered, provide old spelling in parenthesis the first time it is mentioned in the manuscript. e.g., Kolkata (Calcutta), or Bengaluru (Bangalore). Place name spellings in original quotations should not be changed.
If place names have changed, provide the old name in parenthesis the first time it is mentioned, e.g., Polokwane (Pietersburg). Place name in original quotations should not be changed.

Use of diacritics or accents is optional but must be consistent throughout the article.
Italic type should be used only for titles of books and journals referred to in the body of the manuscript, Latin names of biological species, and for less familiar non-English words and terms.
Endnotes are included in the total word limit for the manuscript. They should be used only if there is need to elaborate on an explanation or point in the main text, or to briefly draw attention to other perspectives related to the point being made in the main text.
Endnotes should only be inserted using the endnote function, not by manually inserting numbers in superscript.
Endnotes should be inserted within the main text, not in the title, abstract, and headings.
Endnotes must use Arabic numerals for numbering.
References are included in the total word limit for the manuscript. All references that have been cited in the text should be listed in the References and vice versa.
Citations within the Main Text
All secondary references should be cited in parentheses within the main text in the 'Author Date: Page' format. Referencing should follow the Author-Date system of the Chicago Manual of Style.
  • Single author, e.g., (Shah 1999).
  • Two authors to be separated by 'and', not '&' symbol, e.g., as (Rai and Sahu 2001).
  • More than 2 authors: first author et al. (et al. not italics), e.g., Roy et al. 2004.
  • Direct quotations from references should include page numbers from where the quote was taken, e.g, (Banda 2019, 45-46)
  • Citations within the text should be in chronological order, separated by a semicolon, e.g., (Zade 1995; Mathew 1996a,b, 1998; Sharma et al. 2004; Forman and Gordon 2005, 2007).
  • For multiple publications by the same author(s) in the same year, the citation in the text should be distinguished using lower case alphabets separated by commas, e.g., Sharma 1960a,b (not 1960a, 1960b).
  • For institutional publications use acronym in text citations, e.g., (INRA 2008).
  • For quotations from field interviews, provide name of interviewee (if consented to be named) or descriptor (if anonymity is required) and year, e.g., (field interviews, community representative, 2018)
  • For citing personal communication, provide full name and year e.g., (Asha Shenoi pers. comm. 2011).
  • For citation of unpublished / undated references, indicate status, e.g., (D’Souza in press), (Sen forthcoming), (Khan in review), (Poonawalla unpublished), (Schmidt nd)
  • Titles of reports should be italicised within the main text.
Reference list
The reference list should begin on a new page at the end of the main text. The list should include all books, articles and online resources cited within the text.
Historical articles using primary sources from archives should list these references separately from secondary sources.
  • References should be listed in ascending alphabetical order, from A to Z, using the last name of authors, e.g, Anderson, Bhatt, Cronon, David, etc.
  • Maintain single line space between references. Do not add extra line spaces, use numbering, tabs, alignments, or justification.
  • For references with more than 3 authors, list the first 3 names, followed by et al.
  • All titles should be in Sentence case; do not capitalise the first word after colon in Sentence case.
  • Do not insert spaces between initials.
  • Page numbers ranges separated by en-dash e.g., 1–9 (not 1-9).
  • Journal name in full (including well-known journals like PNAS, PLoS Biology, etc.), and italics; no full stop after journal name
  • Book name in italics
  • Use complete page ranges. e.g., 371–379 (not 371–9); 227–235 (not 227–35).
  • Place name acronyms, no full stops between capitals e.g., DRC, USA, UK, DC, PRC
  • Foreign language references –need to be in the same format as English titles.
  • Reference are long and/or have acronyms: Acronyms followed by full name in parenthesis in reference list, e.g., INRA (Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria). 2008.
  • Listing multiple places of publication, i.e., if a book has been published by more than one publisher/in more than one place by only one publisher, e.g., Hanoi: Quang Nam Forest Department and WWF Indochina or Gland and Cambridge: IUCN or Hanoi: Quang Nam Forest Department and WWF Indochina; Gland and Cambridge: IUCN, FAO, WHO, UNDP, MIT Press, OUP.
  • Abbreviation for well-known publisher names, e.g., IUCN, FAO, WHO, UNDP, MIT Press, OUP, etc.
  • Unpublished/Undated references: In press, Forthcoming, In review, etc.
Author, A., B. Author, and C. Author. Year. Article title [Sentence case]. Journal/Newsletter Name Volume (Issue no.): Page range.
Feeney, D., B. McCay, and J. Acheson. 1990. The tragedy of the commons: twenty-two years later. Human Ecology 18(1): 1–20.
Sahu, A. Forthcoming. This is a test title for a manuscript in a journal. Conservation & Society 1(1): 1–20.
Sahu, A. and B. Das. In press. This is a test title for a manuscript in a journal. Conservation & Society 1(1): 1–20.
Sahu, A. In review. This is a test title for a manuscript in a journal. Conservation & Society 1(1): 1–20.

Books/Edited Books
Author, A., B. Author, and C. Author. Year. Book name [Sentence case]. City: Publisher. 
Forman, R.T.T. and M. Gordon. 1986. Landscape ecology. New York, NY: John Wiley.
Bhat, A., B. Das, and C. Roy (eds.). 1991. Ecological book. Chennai, India: Thinai Publishers.

Book Chapters
Author, A., B. Author, and C. Author. Year. Chapter title [Sentence case]. In: Book name [Sentence case] (eds. Author, A. and B. Author). ‘nth’ edition. Volume n. Pp. xx–yy. City: Publisher. 
Lakshman, W.D. 1986. Lineages of dependent development: from state control to the open economy in Sri Lanka. In: The challenge in South Asia: development, democracy and regional cooperation (eds. Wignaraja, P. and A. Hussain). 2nd edition. Volume 2. Pp. 105–163. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Theses / Dissertations
Author, A. Year. Article title [Sentence case]. PhD dissertation / thesis (or MA/MSc/MTech) thesis. University, City, Country. 
Sandee, H. 1995. Innovations in production. PhD thesis. Free University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Conference papers
Author, A. and B. Author. Year. Paper title [Sentence case]. In: Conference name [Sentence case], Number. Organised by / eds. Author, A., B. Author, and C. Author. City: Publisher. Month DD, YYYY. Pp. xx–yy. 
Van Helden, F. 2006. Constructing the case for conservation in Guinea. In: People protecting nature. Organised by Carrier, J. and P. West. Oxford: Brookes University. October 21, 2005. Pp. 23–25.

For online reference/ URL: date of access must (even for static content such as online documents)
Author, A. Year. Title [Sentence case]. URL. Accessed on Month DD, YYYY. 

Ozinga, S. 2003. Parks with people. World Rainforest Movement/FERN. http://www.fern.org/pubs/ngostats/parks.htm. Accessed on February 25, 2006.

Working Papers:
Author, A., B. Author, and C. Author. Year. Chapter title [Sentence case]. In: Book name [Sentence case] (eds. Author, A., B. Author, and C. Author). Pp. xx–yy. City: Publisher Working Paper No. 
Wilkie, D.S., L. White, and B. Curran. 2007. Parks and people in Gabon. In: Protected areas and human displacement (eds. Redford, K.H. and E. Fearn). Pp. 70–74. New York: Wildlife Conservation Society Working Paper No. 29.

Same author (s), same year, multiple publications: Distinguish using lower case alphabets. 

Sharma, A.B. 1960a. The theory of commons. Conservation and Society 1: 52–53.
Sharma, A.B. 1960b. The commons in southern India. Ph.D. thesis. Princeton University, Princeton, USA.
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