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Conservation and Society
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Conservation and Society
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How Will the End of Bear Bile Farming in Vietnam Influence Consumer Choice?

1 San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance, Escondido, California, USA
2 San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance, Escondido, California, USA; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
3 Free the Bears, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR; Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Health, University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø, Nordland County, Norway
4 Vinh University, Thành Phố Vinh, Nghệ An, Vietnam
5 San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance, Escondido, California, USA; Instituto de Estudios Sociales Avanzados, Cordoba, Spain

Date of Submission19-May-2021
Date of Acceptance19-Aug-2021
Date of Web Publication18-Nov-2021

Correspondence Address:
Elizabeth O Davis,
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance, Escondido, California
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Source of Support: This research was supported by SDZWA's postdoctoral program; no other funding was received., Conflict of Interest: E.O. Davis works for the San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance (SDZWA), a global conservation organisation. B. Crudge works for Free the Bears Fund, Inc., a bear rescue and conservation organisation

DOI: 10.4103/cs.cs_74_21


The Vietnamese Government committed to closing all bear farms in the country by 2022. Some researchers have expressed concerns that ending the commercial farming of bears, while demand for bear bile persists, could lead to increased hunting pressure on wild bear populations. In this article, we used mixed methods of questionnaires, Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs), and interviews to investigate current consumer demand for bear bile in Vietnam, with a specific aim of understanding the potential for consumers to seek out wild bear bile. We sampled at seven areas across the country of Vietnam (total respondents = 2,463). We found low use of farmed and wild bear bile. Despite widespread belief in farmed and wild bear bile's efficacy, we found that individuals were apathetic about continuing to use bear bile. Coupled with a strong preference for using synthetic bear bile over wild and farmed bear bile found in the DCEs, we posit that bear bile consumers in Vietnam will be willing to use non animal-based products, including bear bile plant and Western medicine, to treat future ailments.

Keywords: choice experiment; specialized questioning techniques; Ursus thibetanus; Helarctos malayanus; wildlife farming

How to cite this URL:
Davis EO, Veríssimo D, Crudge B, Sam SH, Cao DT, Ho PV, Dang NT, Nguyen TD, Nguyen HN, Cao TT, Glikman JA. How Will the End of Bear Bile Farming in Vietnam Influence Consumer Choice?. Conservat Soc [Epub ahead of print] [cited 2022 Jan 20]. Available from: https://www.conservationandsociety.org.in//preprintarticle.asp?id=330663

Abstract in Vietnamese http://bit.ly/31UPa82



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